Manage without objects in C - And why can I declare variables anywhere in a C function?

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everyone. I actually have two questions, somewhat related.

Question #1: Why is gcc letting me declare variables after action statements? I thought the C89 standard did not allow this. (GCC Version: 4.4.3) It even happens when I explicitly use --std=c89 on the compile line. I know that most compilers implement things that are non-standard, i.e. C compilers allowing // comments, when the standard does not specify that. I'd like to learn just the standard, so that if I ever need to use just the standard, I don't snag on things like this.

Question #2: How do you cope without objects in C? I program as a hobby, and I have not yet used a language that does not have Objects (a.k.a. OO concepts?) -- I already know some C++, and I'd like to learn how to use C on it's own. Supposedly, one way is to make a POD struct and make functions similar to StructName_constructor(), StructName_doSomething(), etc. and pass the struct instance to each function - is this the 'proper' way, or am I totally off?

EDIT: Due to some minor confusion, I am defining what my second question is more clearly: I am not asking How do I use Objects in C? I am asking How do you manage without objects in C?, a.k.a. how do you accomplish things without objects, where you'd normally use objects?

In advance, thanks a lot. I've never used a language without OOP! :)

EDIT: As per request, here is an example of the variable declaration issue:

/* includes, or whatever */
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    int  myInt = 5;
    printf("myInt is %d\n", myInt);
    int test = 4; /* This does not result in a compile error */
    printf("Test is %d\n", test);
    return 0;
}


  1. c89 doesn't allow this, but c99 does. Although it's taken a long time to catch on, some compilers (including gcc) are finally starting to implement c99 features.
  2. IMO, if you want to use OOP, you should probably stick to C++ or try out Objective C. Trying to reinvent OOP built on top of C again just doesn't make much sense.

If you insist on doing it anyway, yes, you can pass a pointer to a struct as an imitation of this -- but it's still not a good idea.

It does often make sense to pass (pointers to) structs around when you need to operate on a data structure. I would not, however, advise working very hard at grouping functions together and having them all take a pointer to a struct as their first parameter, just because that's how other languages happen to implement things.

If you happen to have a number of functions that all operate on/with a particular struct, and it really makes sense for them to all receive a pointer to that struct as their first parameter, that's great -- but don't feel obliged to force it just because C++ happens to do things that way.

Edit: As far as how you manage without objects: well, at least when I'm writing C, I tend to operate on individual characters more often. For what it's worth, in C++ I typically end up with a few relatively long lines of code; in C, I tend toward a lot of short lines instead.

There is more separation between the code and data, but to some extent they're still coupled anyway -- a binary tree (for example) still needs code to insert nodes, delete nodes, walk the tree, etc. Likewise, the code for those operations needs to know about the layout of the structure, and the names given to the pointers and such.

Personally, I tend more toward using a common naming convention in my C code, so (for a few examples) the pointers to subtrees in a binary tree are always just named left and right. If I use a linked list (rare) the pointer to the next node is always named next (and if it's doubly-linked, the other is prev). This helps a lot with being able to write code without having to spend a lot of time looking up a structure definition to figure out what name I used for something this time.