How to know which model of Keras is the best?

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I don't understand which accuracy in the output to use to compare my 2 Keras models to see which one is better.

Do I use the "acc" (from the training data?) one or the "val acc" (from the validation data?) one?

There are different accs and val accs for each epoch. How do I know the acc or val acc for my model as a whole? Do I average all of the epochs accs or val accs to find the acc or val acc of the model as a whole?

Model 1 Output

Train on 970 samples, validate on 243 samples
Epoch 1/20
0s - loss: 0.1708 - acc: 0.7990 - val_loss: 0.2143 - val_acc: 0.7325
Epoch 2/20
0s - loss: 0.1633 - acc: 0.8021 - val_loss: 0.2295 - val_acc: 0.7325
Epoch 3/20
0s - loss: 0.1657 - acc: 0.7938 - val_loss: 0.2243 - val_acc: 0.7737
Epoch 4/20
0s - loss: 0.1847 - acc: 0.7969 - val_loss: 0.2253 - val_acc: 0.7490
Epoch 5/20
0s - loss: 0.1771 - acc: 0.8062 - val_loss: 0.2402 - val_acc: 0.7407
Epoch 6/20
0s - loss: 0.1789 - acc: 0.8021 - val_loss: 0.2431 - val_acc: 0.7407
Epoch 7/20
0s - loss: 0.1789 - acc: 0.8031 - val_loss: 0.2227 - val_acc: 0.7778
Epoch 8/20
0s - loss: 0.1810 - acc: 0.8010 - val_loss: 0.2438 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 9/20
0s - loss: 0.1711 - acc: 0.8134 - val_loss: 0.2365 - val_acc: 0.7490
Epoch 10/20
0s - loss: 0.1852 - acc: 0.7959 - val_loss: 0.2423 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 11/20
0s - loss: 0.1889 - acc: 0.7866 - val_loss: 0.2523 - val_acc: 0.7366
Epoch 12/20
0s - loss: 0.1838 - acc: 0.8021 - val_loss: 0.2563 - val_acc: 0.7407
Epoch 13/20
0s - loss: 0.1835 - acc: 0.8041 - val_loss: 0.2560 - val_acc: 0.7325
Epoch 14/20
0s - loss: 0.1868 - acc: 0.8031 - val_loss: 0.2573 - val_acc: 0.7407
Epoch 15/20
0s - loss: 0.1829 - acc: 0.8072 - val_loss: 0.2581 - val_acc: 0.7407
Epoch 16/20
0s - loss: 0.1878 - acc: 0.8062 - val_loss: 0.2589 - val_acc: 0.7407
Epoch 17/20
0s - loss: 0.1833 - acc: 0.8072 - val_loss: 0.2613 - val_acc: 0.7366
Epoch 18/20
0s - loss: 0.1837 - acc: 0.8113 - val_loss: 0.2605 - val_acc: 0.7325
Epoch 19/20
0s - loss: 0.1906 - acc: 0.8010 - val_loss: 0.2555 - val_acc: 0.7407
Epoch 20/20
0s - loss: 0.1884 - acc: 0.8062 - val_loss: 0.2542 - val_acc: 0.7449

Model 2 Output

Train on 970 samples, validate on 243 samples
Epoch 1/20
0s - loss: 0.1735 - acc: 0.7876 - val_loss: 0.2386 - val_acc: 0.6667
Epoch 2/20
0s - loss: 0.1733 - acc: 0.7825 - val_loss: 0.1894 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 3/20
0s - loss: 0.1781 - acc: 0.7856 - val_loss: 0.2028 - val_acc: 0.7407
Epoch 4/20
0s - loss: 0.1717 - acc: 0.8021 - val_loss: 0.2545 - val_acc: 0.7119
Epoch 5/20
0s - loss: 0.1757 - acc: 0.8052 - val_loss: 0.2252 - val_acc: 0.7202
Epoch 6/20
0s - loss: 0.1776 - acc: 0.8093 - val_loss: 0.2449 - val_acc: 0.7490
Epoch 7/20
0s - loss: 0.1833 - acc: 0.7897 - val_loss: 0.2272 - val_acc: 0.7572
Epoch 8/20
0s - loss: 0.1827 - acc: 0.7928 - val_loss: 0.2376 - val_acc: 0.7531
Epoch 9/20
0s - loss: 0.1795 - acc: 0.8062 - val_loss: 0.2445 - val_acc: 0.7490
Epoch 10/20
0s - loss: 0.1746 - acc: 0.8103 - val_loss: 0.2491 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 11/20
0s - loss: 0.1831 - acc: 0.8082 - val_loss: 0.2477 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 12/20
0s - loss: 0.1831 - acc: 0.8113 - val_loss: 0.2496 - val_acc: 0.7490
Epoch 13/20
0s - loss: 0.1920 - acc: 0.8000 - val_loss: 0.2459 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 14/20
0s - loss: 0.1945 - acc: 0.7928 - val_loss: 0.2446 - val_acc: 0.7490
Epoch 15/20
0s - loss: 0.1852 - acc: 0.7990 - val_loss: 0.2459 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 16/20
0s - loss: 0.1800 - acc: 0.8062 - val_loss: 0.2495 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 17/20
0s - loss: 0.1891 - acc: 0.8000 - val_loss: 0.2469 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 18/20
0s - loss: 0.1891 - acc: 0.8041 - val_loss: 0.2467 - val_acc: 0.7531
Epoch 19/20
0s - loss: 0.1853 - acc: 0.8072 - val_loss: 0.2511 - val_acc: 0.7449
Epoch 20/20
0s - loss: 0.1905 - acc: 0.8062 - val_loss: 0.2460 - val_acc: 0.7531


Do I use the "acc" (from the training data?) one or the "val acc" (from the validation data?) one?

If you want to estimate the ability of your model to generalize to new data (which is probably what you want to do), then you look at the validation accuracy, because the validation split contains only data that the model never sees during the training and therefor cannot just memorize.

If your training data accuracy ("acc") keeps improving while your validation data accuracy ("val_acc") gets worse, you are likely in an overfitting situation, i.e. your model starts to basically just memorize the data.

There are different accs and val accs for each epoch. How do I know the acc or val acc for my model as a whole? Do I average all of the epochs accs or val accs to find the acc or val acc of the model as a whole?

Each epoch is a training run over all of your data. During that run the parameters of your model are adjusted according to your loss function. The result is a set of parameters which have a certain ability to generalize to new data. That ability is reflected by the validation accuracy. So think of every epoch as its own model, which can get better or worse if it is trained for another epoch. Whether it got better or worse is judged by the change in validation accuracy (better = validation accuracy increased). Therefore pick the model of the epoch with the highest validation accuracy. Don't average the accuracies over different epochs, that wouldn't make much sense. You can use the Keras callback ModelCheckpoint to automatically save the model with the highest validation accuracy (see callbacks documentation).

The highest accuracy in model 1 is 0.7737 and the highest one in model 2 is 0.7572. Therefore you should view model 1 (at epoch 3) as better. Though it is possible that the 0.7737 was just a random outlier.