How to find where the error is


How can I find where the error occurs? In C language, the return value means what error occurs, such as failure to open file or memory allocation. There is no information where the error occurs.

For example, function 'foo' calls A,B,C,D. If foo returns an error value, it might be return value of A or B or C or D. I cannot find what function returns error. I have to run debugger or add some codes to find what function returns error.

Yes, you'll have to use a debugger or add extra code to display some output. Also, make sure you look at the pre-conditions for the function you call (if there are any) - make sure that you obey what it demands before calling it.