Error Binding Parameter 0: Probably Not Supported Type

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I can't seem to figure out what is wrong with my code, but I keep getting the:

error "binding parameter 0 - probably unsupported type".

Here is my code:

last = 'EBERT'

sakila = connect("sakila.db")
res = sakila.execute("SELECT first_name, last_name FROM customer WHERE last_name = ?",[(last,)])

for row in res:
    print(row)

When I have it where 'EBERT' is in the query and not set to a variable, it works fine, so I know it's a problem with the tuple syntax or something. I've tried it without the brackets, with a second variable for first_name, with and without a separately defined cursor, and basically every method I can think of, and I've researched for hours but have gotten nowhere, so any help would be super appreciated.


Nested lists, tuples are used for executemany, not for execute.

Pass a flat list (or tuple) that contians parameters.

res = sakila.execute(
    "SELECT first_name, last_name FROM customer WHERE last_name = ?",
    (last,))

or

res = sakila.execute(
    "SELECT first_name, last_name FROM customer WHERE last_name = ?",
    [last])